Sunday, May 24, 2020
Benjamin Day was a printer from New England who started a trend in American journalism when he founded a New York City newspaper, The Sun, which sold for a penny. Reasoning that a growing working-class audience would respond to a newspaper that was affordable, his invention of the Penny Press was a genuine milestone in American journalism history. While DayÃ¢â¬â¢s newspaper proved successful, he was not particularly suited to being a newspaper editor. After about five years of operating The Sun, he sold it to his brother in law at the very low price of $40,000. The newspaper continued to publish for decades. Day later dabbled with publishing magazines and with other business endeavors. By the 1860s he was essentially retired. He lived on his investments until his death in 1889. Despite his relatively short tenure in the American newspaper business, Day is remembered as a revolutionary figure who proved that newspapers could be marketed to a mass audience. Early Life of Benjamin Day Benjamin Day was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, on April 10, 1810. His family had deep roots in New England going back to the 1830s. While in his teens Day was apprenticed to a printer, and at the age of 20 he moved to New York City and began working in print shops and newspaper offices. He saved enough money to start his own printing business, which nearly failed when the cholera epidemic of 1832 sent a panic through the city. Trying to salvage his business, he decided to start a newspaper. Founding of The Sun Day was aware that other low-cost newspapers had been tried elsewhere in America, but in New York City the price of a newspaper was generally six cents. Reasoning that working-class New Yorkers, including newly arrived immigrants, would read a newspaper if they could afford it, Day launched The Sun on September 3, 1833. At the outset, Day put the newspaper together by repackaging the news from out of town newspapers. And to stay competitive he hired a reporter, George Wisner, who ferreted out news and wrote articles. Day also introduced another innovation, newsboys who hawked the newspaper on street corners. The combination of a cheap newspaper that was easily available was successful, and before long Day was making a good living publishing The Sun. And his success inspired a competitor with far more journalism experience, James Gordon Bennett, to launch The Herald, another penny newspaper in New York, in 1835. An era of newspaper competition was born. When Horace Greeley founded the New York Tribune in 1841 it was also initially priced at one cent. At some point, Day lost interest in the day-to-day work of publishing a newspaper, and he sold The Sun to his brother in law, Moses Yale Beach, in 1838. But during the short time he was involved in newspapers he had successfully disrupted the industry. DayÃ¢â¬â¢s Later Life Day later launched another newspaper, which he sold after a few months. And he started a magazine called Brother Jonathan (named for the common symbol for America before Uncle Sam became popular). During the Civil War Day retired for good. He admitted at one point that he had not been a great newspaper editor, but had managed to transform the business Ã¢â¬Å"more by accident than design.Ã¢â¬ He died in New York City on December 21, 1889, at the age of 79.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth Award-winning filmmaker Guillermo Del Toro delivers a unique, richly imagined epic with PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth released in 2006, a gothic fairy tale set against the postwar repression of Francos Spain. Del Toros sixth and most ambitious film, PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth harnesses the formal characteristics of classic folklore to a 20th Century period. Del Toro portrays a child as the key character, to communicate that children minds are not cemented. Children avoid reality through the subconscious imagination which is untainted by a grown-up person, so through a point of an innocent child more is captured. The film showcases what the imagination can do as a means of escape to comfort the physical trials one goes through inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The language of the film is in Spanish, adding to the enmity as a foreign language to English speakers. The use of subtitles draws in the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention making them cling on to every word being said because of the i ntensity of the movie. There is also a lot of disturbing visual effects in the panÃ¢â¬â¢s labyrinth which also captures the audiences attention such as the scene where Captain Vidal must stitch his own cheek sliced open from the mouth adds to the realism of the film, leaving the audience to squirm in their senses, imagining the pain. The use of close ups and tracking shots emphasize the hysterical, tragic mood of the story. This causes the audience to feel maudlin and affected. An example is the frame of a close-up high angled shot when we see Captain Vidal shoot Ofelia. We realize the gravity of the crime, watching Ofelia fall to the cold stone floor as her blood drops down the entrance of the Underworld realm. The uses foreshadowing by Del Toro also plays in as a technique in depicting a predictive or predetermined conclusion for the protagonist and what is in store for her later on in the movie. In one scene when her mother is on the bed and the baby starts kicking she tells Ofelia to recite a fable to her unborn brother to calm him down, her story is about pain and loss and the reward in the end granted be eternal life. The fable she tells foreshadows the imagination she has for hardships she faces in reality and her conclusionShow MoreRelatedPans Labyrinth Film Analysis2030 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages08516 Chelsea Birks December 5, 2017 The narrative power of sound in PanÃ¢â¬â¢s labyrinth The film that I have chosen as a case study for my final paper is: PanÃ¢â¬â¢s labyrinth (2006) by director Guillermo del Toro, and it is a case of real-fantastic cinema. Here I present my essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å" The narrative power of sound in PanÃ¢â¬â¢s labyrinth Ã¢â¬Å"of Guillermo Del Toro . It will analyze the sound design , the identification of its elements, the ways in which they are presented and their interrelations, to understandRead MorePans Labyrinth Film Analysis Essay1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesVanessa Salfen 6/29/2012 Visual Analysis PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth: A Visual Analysis PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth, originally titled El laberinto del fauno, was published in 2006 by the Spanish director Guillermo del Toro. The story is set in the year 1944, in the country-side of a post-Civil War Spain. A young and imaginative girl named Ofelia, played by Ivana Baquero, travels with her pregnant mother, Carmen Vidal, who is very ill; in order to meet and live with her stepfather, a cruel and sadistic man named CapitanRead MoreMyth, Religion, and Violence in PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth and Bless Me, Ultima: A Comparative Analysis1346 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRudolfo AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s, Bless Me, Ultima and Guillermo del ToroÃ¢â¬â¢s, PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth are two coming-of-age stories. Both the novel and the movie are full of events that contribute to the disillusionment of the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood idealism and the realization of the real world they live in. Both protagonists absorb themselves in a mythical world full of fantasy and each receives exposure to religious th eology and trauma by the violence of men. Despite the fact that Antonio and Ofelia have differentRead MorePans Labyrinth Film Analysis1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesseems to coincide with an unsettling environment. For instance, PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth by Guillermo Del Toro and Night of the Shooting Stars by Giuliani G. De Negri both focus on the idea of fiction centered around a destructive ambience. Both movies take place in a deteriorating war zone in which the main characters manage to escape temporarily but still witness horrific event that they manifest into their own type of dream reality. PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth takes place during the Spanish Civil War where a young OfeliaRead MoreAnalysis Of The Cyclops And Pan s Labyrinth 1712 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages It seems fitting that analysis of The Cyclops would be done alongside PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth given the satyric nature of the former and the allusions to the greek god Pan of the latter. However, while the monstrous Pan (or, the Faun ) may be represented as such in the film, the purpose for his inclusion is largely different from the purpose for the inclusion of Polyphemus in Euripides play. Modern storytellers having recognized that monstrosity may exist in any number of forms helps to develop a basisRead MoreThe Effects of Oppression on the Innocent Mind: A Comparative Analysis795 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Effects of Oppression on the Innocent Mind: A Comparative Analysis In my early childhood, I have many memories of my summers in Greece. Greece was an idyllic tropical paradise, where the air was laced with the alluringly sweet smell of peace. The golden sun shined resplendently, releasing waves of bliss and life. My family lived together in harmony, and laughed together happily; life was good. Some children experienced the exact opposite. They lived on a decaying wasteland, where the air reekedRead MoreEssay on Spanish Cinema After the Dictatorship in 19751822 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFernando Trueba and Guillermo Del Toro in the late 20th century and early 21st century. These directors have created films which dealt with themes of nationality and national history, such as Todo sobre mi madre (Pedro AlmodÃ ³var, 1999) and PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth (Guillermo Del Toro, 2006). Although Spanish cinema only started to develop into a distinctive style later in the 20th century due to the end of censorship and propaganda regimes, some film makers such as Luis Brunel gained international acknowledgementRead MoreThe Crucible; Belonging and Identity. Pans Labyrinth and the Company of Wolves as Related Texts1999 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesof belonging. By the decision to act contrastingly to a set of opposing values, Proctor is still allowing his identity to be dependent on the sense of belonging established by the group he abhors. Similarly, Ofelia from Guillermo Del ToroÃ¢â¬â¢s PanÃ¢â¬â¢s Labyrinth (El Laberinto del Fauno) finds her identity in the rejection of the Ã¢â¬ËbelongingÃ¢â¬â¢ established in her StepfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s (Vidal) military base in the mountains of Spain at the close of the civil war, 1944. Consider the following, lifted from an EnglishRead More Analysis of Animal Characters in Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll2568 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesby Thomas C. Haliburton. It is related to my thesis because the animal characters in AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s Adventure in Wonderland felt that they had authority to disobey the animal characters in other traditional fairytales. This is similar to Del ToroÃ¢â¬â¢s Pan Labyrinth because there are main animal characters like fairytales, faun, and paleman. They have the weird physical features. It was really gross to see them. This applied to Lewis CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s book because he used the animals in a weird way. For example, TheRead MoreLiterary Criticism : Not Just A Pretty Face 2609 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageswritten word. He contends that it suffers not only from inconsistencies internally because of Socrates analogy between memory and writing, but also because his ideas come to us only through his written word. Many deconstructive arguments center on the analysis of its oppositions. The person doing the deconstruction looks for ways in which one term is more privileged than the other in a particular text because it is considered the general, or normal, term, while the other is considered special or exceptional
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Much to our perceived attention is the idealised image that most aspire to have. In attempting to achieve such a look involves drastic measures for some and possibly fatal. There is ample of evidence to suggest that such measures revolve around an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s eating habits thus leading to unhealthy disordered eating patterns. Eating disorders refer to abnormal eating habits characterised by excessive or insufficient intake of food and develop from a number of interrelated issues. Much of the research into eating disorders has focused particularly on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and its developmental causes. Anorexia nervosa is a psychological disorder characterised by delusions of being overweight resulting in conspicuousÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Also, despite its far-reaching nature, the media tends to conform and show one particular image to be correct, which is to be thin, whether it be celebrities or the presenters of a channel. In light of the evidence presented against the mass media in advocating unhealthy messages some critics argue that the media is not fully to blame. Although a positive correlation between media exposure and high levels of clinical eating disorders does exist, it does not fully justify or provide sufficient evidence for the case that the media is solely responsible for mediating unhealthy messages or negative connotations towards overweight people as most claim it to be. However, this argument follows if one watches too much television. There is the view that one may be more susceptible to another depending on the amount of television that they consume. Research shows that the alarming rates of young females wanting to achieve the Ã¢â¬Ëperfect bodyÃ¢â¬â¢ relies heavily on the amount of television they consume day in and day out. Emerging primarily in childhood, where children are exposed to a lot of television this attitude of the idealised image is carved throughout their developing life. Therefore, watching a particular body image from such a young age embeds the mentality that being thin is the right way to be. In response to the enormous level of exposure and pressure exhibited by the mass media it is apparent as to why many people are and remain highly displeasedShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Exercise Behaviors And Body Image And Eating Disorder Development1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesphysical self-esteem on eating behaviors looks at one facet of this relationship. Exercise behaviors that will be looked at will take into account intensity of exercise, exercise frequency, and motivations for exercise. Self-esteem is multifaceted, but focusing on physical self-esteem pinpoints the physical appearance factors. Eating behaviors will be defined as the presence of significant eating disorder symptomology further detailed in the methods section. Eating disorder categories covered areRead More Parents Roles in Development of Eating Disorders: How Important is the Father?1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesParents Roles in Development of Eating Disorders Introduction Much of the literature that focuses on the parents role in the development of eating disorders is focused on the mother and the mother-daughter relationship. Studies have shown conclusively that a mothers body image and eating habits are, mirrored in her daughter, and that if she is obsessed with her own body image, it stands likely that her daughter will be the same way both growing up and in her adult life. The father, thoughRead More The Contribution of Social, Cultural, and Family Environment to the Development of Eating Disorders2053 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescontribute to the development of eating disorders. Eating disorders have been found through centuries of doctors records. Some as far back as the seventeenth century through Morton (1694) descriptions of the symptoms of eating disorders during this period in time. Despite this eating disorders were only formally known as a disorder until 1980 when it was published in the DSM and more recent editions have shown that there are two different forms of eating disorders which are anorexiaRead MoreIndividual Psychology in the Real World809 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesand physical disorders. Susan E. Belangee in her article Ã¢â¬Å"Couples and Eating Disorders: An Individual Psychology ApproachÃ¢â¬ examines the factors that lead to eating disorders and how eating disorders affect adult intimate relationships through AdlerÃ¢â¬â¢s personality theory. Belangee deems individual psychology as an effective approach to treating eating disorders. Examining eating disorders through individual psychology expands oneÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding o f personality and how its development can lead toRead MoreEating Disorders are an Unhealthy Obsession1541 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEating Disorders are a set of serious disorders with underlying psychiatric foundations. An eating disorder occurs when exercise, body weight and shape become an unhealthy obsession (Stein, Merrick, Latzer, 2011). People with eating disorders take physical concerns to the extremes that they take on abnormal eating habits. There are a variety of cases that lead to an eating disorder and can affect both men and women, however its prevalence primarily occur in adolescence (Ison Kent, 2010; SteinRead MoreEssay about Socio-Cultural Influences on Eating Disorders 1073 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesproved says those with low self-esteem are most influenced by media. Media is not the only culprit behind eating disorders. However, that does not mean that they have no part in eating disorders. Media is omnipresent and challenging it can halt the constant pressure on people to be perfect (Bagley). Socio-cultural influences, like the false images of thin women have been researched to distort eating and cause un-satisfaction of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s body. However, it is clear that, although virtually all womenRead MoreEating Disorders Are Affecting Adolescents With Increasing Frequency967 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEating disorders are complex illnesses that are affecting adolescents with increasing frequency . They rank as the third most common chronic illness in adolescent females, with an incidence of up to 5% 1, 2 and 3. Three major subgroups are recognized: a restrictive form in which food intake is severely limited (anorexia nervosa); a bulimic form in which binge-eating episodes are followed by attempts to minimize the effects of overeating via vomiting, catharsis, exercise, or fasting (bulimia nervosa);Read MoreTowards An Understanding Of Self Esteem And Eating Disorders1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTowards an Understanding of Self-Esteem and Eating Disorders By Melissa H. Smith, Ph.D. | Submitted On September 24, 2012 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Melissa H. Smith, Ph.D. During aRead MoreSociocultural And Family Influences On Eating Disorders1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessociocultural and family, that lead to the development of eating disorders. Neurology is a factor as disturbances to neurotransmitters and serotonin can affect brain activities that make an individual more susceptible to develop disordered behaviors associated with eating disorders. Genetics are also an important factor to eating disorders as they are inheritable and recessive in future generations. Personal, predisposed characteristics are another influence in eating disorders. Those who have self-esteem deficitsRead MoreThe Media s Influence On Eating Habits876 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessociety, social identity, psychographic characteristics and mental illness all contribute to the development of disturbed eating habits from suppressing food to binge eating, especially in college-aged young adults. We seem to point our fingers at the media and society for a lot of the social issues in the world today. But is the media really to blame for disturbed eating behaviors that lead to eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa? There has been quite a bit of research done in
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
On the day in question Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s only son called the police saying that his father had hung himself from a chandelier at his estate. The police found his feet hanging about two feet above the stool, and several pieces of steel wire had been ripped out of his beloved piano. As a result from the evidence I concluded that his son murdered him. First, Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s hands are tied together. Generally, it is almost humanly impossible to tie your hands together then hang yourself from a chandelier. In conclusion, someone else mustÃ¢â¬â¢ve tied his hands together. Secondly, some steel wire had been ripped out from his piano. Although, Mr. Karazai was depressed and angry at himself for his lack of strength, his piano was something that he loved very much. Generally, if you really love something you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t harm it no matter how mad you are. Thirdly, there was only one thin line of blood right across his AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s Apple. As a rule, the material he used to commit suicide wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have caused that cut, that means that someone else murdered him with a different type of material. More importantly, Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son was the only family he had left meaning that his son would be the person who ended up keeping Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s money. Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son probably killed his father so he could keep all the money. According to the evidence I reviewed, I have concluded that Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son has indeed murdered his father and will be question by authorities. The Case Of The Dead Musician On the day in question Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s only son called the police saying that his father had hung himself from a chandelier at his estate. The police found his feet hanging about two feet above the stool, and several pieces of steel wire had been ripped out of his beloved piano. As a result from the evidence I concluded that his son murdered him. First, Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s hands are tied together. Generally, it is almost humanly impossible to tie your hands together then hang yourself from a chandelier. In conclusion, someone else mustÃ¢â¬â¢ve tied his hands together. Secondly, some steel wire had been ripped out from his piano. Although, Mr. Karazai was depressed and angry at himself for his lack of strength, his piano was something that he loved very much. Generally, if you really love something you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t harm it no matter how mad you are. Thirdly, there was only one thin line of blood right across his AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s Apple. As a rule, the material he used to commit suicide wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have caused that cut, that means that someone else murdered him with a different type of material. More importantly, Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son was the only family he had left meaning that his son would be the person who ended up keeping Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s money. Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son probably killed his father so he could keep all the money. According to the evidence I reviewed, I have concluded that Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son has indeed murdered his father and will be question by authorities. The Case Of The Dead Musician On the day in question Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s only son called the police saying that his father had hung himself from a chandelier at his estate. The police found his feet hanging about two feet above the stool, and several pieces of steel wire had been ripped out of his beloved piano. As a result from the evidence I concluded that his son murdered him. First, Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s hands are tied together. Generally, it is almost humanly impossible to tie your hands together then hang yourself from a chandelier. In conclusion, someone else mustÃ¢â¬â¢ve tied his hands together. Secondly, some steel wire had been ripped out from his piano. Although, Mr. Karazai was depressed and angry at himself for his lack of strength, his piano was something that he loved very much. Generally, if you really love something you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t harm it no matter how mad you are. Thirdly, there was only one thin line of blood right across his AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s Apple. As a rule, the material he used to commit suicide wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have caused that cut, that means that someone else murdered him with a different type of material. More importantly, Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son was the only family he had left meaning that his son would be the person who ended up keeping Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s money. Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son probably killed his father so he could keep all the money. According to the evidence I reviewed, I have concluded that Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son has indeed murdered his father and will be question by authorities. The Case Of The Dead Musician On the day in question Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s only son called the police saying that his father had hung himself from a chandelier at his estate. The police found his feet hanging about two feet above the stool, and several pieces of steel wire had been ripped out of his beloved piano. As a result from the evidence I concluded that his son murdered him. First, Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s hands are tied together. Generally, it is almost humanly impossible to tie your hands together then hang yourself from a chandelier. In conclusion, someone else mustÃ¢â¬â¢ve tied his hands together. Secondly, some steel wire had been ripped out from his piano. Although, Mr. Karazai was depressed and angry at himself for his lack of strength, his piano was something that he loved very much. Generally, if you really love something you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t harm it no matter how mad you are. Thirdly, there was only one thin line of blood right across his AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s Apple. As a rule, the material he used to commit suicide wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have caused that cut, that means that someone else murdered him with a different type of material. More importantly, Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son was the only family he had left meaning that his son would be the person who ended up keeping Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s money. Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son probably killed his father so he could keep all the money. According to the evidence I reviewed, I have concluded that Mr. KarazaiÃ¢â¬â¢s son has indeed murdered his father and will be question by authorities.
Saturday, April 4, 2020
An employee, through being continuously engaged is in an ideal position to make an active contribution to continuous improvement. (Roberts, 1993) 2. The development of Total Quality Management At the conclusion of World War II American business enjoyed a dominant position within the global market. Industry within the U. S. A. was at its pinnacle while other nations were beginning the long and arduous journey to economic and industrial recovery. During this period American companies shifted their focus from yield and quality to other factors such as finance, marketing and restructuring the organisation. Petersen, 1999) Demand for consumer products had intensified. This was attributed to the scant availability of such items during the years of the war. Order books were full, and quality was of little importance while there were orders to fill. (Rayworth, 1993). It was at this time during the American occupation that Deming arrived in Japan. During this time he became acquainted with me mbers of the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers. We will write a custom essay sample on Total Quality Management a Literature Review or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In 1950 Deming was invited to speak at the Industry club by the president of the Federation of Economic Organisations, Ichiro Ishikawa. Leitner, 1999). As a result of his speech Deming was invited to present a series of lectures advocating his management theories. During the first such lecture Deming told his audience that if they followed his ideas they would be able to compete with other nations within 5 years. What appeared to be a simple message was music to the ears of forlorn and vanquished Japanese. One industry leader who had attended the lecture heeded DemingÃ¢â¬â¢s advice and within a few months saw his companies productivity rise by 30 per cent. Similar results were also noticed amongst other companies. Less than 12 months after DemingÃ¢â¬â¢s initial speech the Japanese created the eminent Deming prize. This award remains the highest form of recognition that a Japanese company can obtain. In 1954 Juran arrived in Japan and began to teach his own ideas on quality. Along with Feigenbaum, who published his book Ã¢â¬ËTotal Quality ControlÃ¢â¬â¢ The quality movement was beginning to gain momentum. (McKenna, 1995) But it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1980 when the NBC produced a documentary titled, If Japan Can, Why CanÃ¢â¬â¢t We? Ã¢â¬â did the quality movement really take off. Osborn, 1990) Forms of quality management emerged during the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s in many manufacturing and service-sector companies, followed in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s by public and welfare based organisations. (Tuckman, 1994). Today there are many awards associated with quality. The most recognised of these being the US Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the European Quality Award, the Japanese Deming Prize, the Canadian Quality Award and the Australian Quality Award. Together these awards represent a large proportion of global production of goods and services and account for over 70% of Gross national product across the planet. (Stading Vokurka, 2003). . Defining Total Quality Management There are many and varied thoughts about how to define TQM. Dellana Hauser (1999) identify an absence of consistency among studies on quality when attempting to define TQM. Boaden (1997) discusses the difficulty of trying to define TQM but acknowledges the importance in attempting to do so because TQM as a subject is now being taught in learning institutions. Patel (1993) agrees and cites definitions created by various authors before contending that TQM is a process that recognises that quality should be the primary focus, and the mission statement of the company should reflect this. TQM enables organisations to obtain a high degree of differentiation and to reduce costs. In an article contained within the TQM magazine, Popplewell and Aghaie (1997) cite the British Standards Institute definition. Ã¢â¬Å"A management philosophy embracing all activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer, the community and the objectives of the organisation are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by maximising the potential of all employees in a continuing drive for improvementÃ¢â¬ . TQM is assumed to have been derived as a means of advancing FeigenbaumÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of total quality control (TQC). Feigenbaum views TQC as an efficient method ensuring quality in areas of development and maintenance. Improvement is combined to promote positive economic performance while still offering satisfaction to the customer. TQM pushes that envelope to include both the design of the product and its delivery to the client while incorporating other philosophies such as empowerment and teamwork. (McAndrew Ehigie, 2005) 4. Benefits of Total Quality Management Khan (2003) cites improvements in productivity, revenue, market-share and profits by companies that adopted TQM practices. These companies included; 3M, Motorola, Xerox, Solectron and Granite Rock Inc. In a survey given to 770 companies Mann Kehoe (1994) published results that further quantified positive results of TQM implementation. Areas of improvement included supplier relationship, process, policy deployment and customer relationship. Chiu, Chang Chen (2010) state by using TQM within the Human Resource context it leads to increased loyalty and satisfaction amongst its employees. Moreover, improved business performance is not limited by the scale of the organisation. This hints at the flexibility and durability of TQM. (Emery Barker, 2006). Competitive advantage can be gained and a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive capability can be enhanced when implementing an effective TQM process. (Zaim, Demirbag , Tekinkus Tatoglu, 1996). 5. Problems with Total Quality Management We have already considered the difficulty in attempting to define TQM, but what other issues are there to face when considering TQM? Numerous studies have shown that less than half of companies who have attempted to adopt a TQM approach have enjoyed any form of success. (Loomis, 1998). The picture painted by Gatchalian (1997) is even bleaker. She reports that the success rate of companies implicating TQM is as low as 20-35 per cent. The main reasons for failure were uncertain implementation processes, waning enthusiasm for the concept, deficient levels of empowerment on all levels, ineffective communication strategies through lack of planning and newly formed teams failing to act in a co-ordinated fashion. Noronha (2003) cites failure can be linked to a culture clash where TQM processes imported from other countries do not marry well with local society. He offers China as a prime example. Although all of these reasons are contributing factors in the potential shortcomings of successful TQM implementation, the overwhelming theme discovered through research points to the role that senior management plays in the failure of TQM. Senior managers have been found to be ignorant, pragmatic, apathetic and scared of embracing and implementing TQM throughout the organisation. (Gatchalian, 2007; Moghaddam Moballeghi, 2008; Chiu, 1999; Cooper Phillips, 1995). 6. 6Keys to successfully implementing an effective TQM strategy While acknowledging what factors can lead to the failure of TQM practices Gatchalian (1997) points to ingredients for success such as information sharing, effective communication process, education and involving everybody within the organisation. Rad (2006) places the emphasis on the senior manager stating that they are required to ensure compliance to TQM principles and values in all parts of their organisation. These include organisational structure, education, communication, process, procedure and compensation strategies. While Holder Walker (1993) argue that middle managers hold the key through understanding the importance of employee empowerment, strategic planning, performance measuring and displaying an empathy for the requirements of the customer. Employing measurement against performance factors is important to ensure continuous improvement and provide the opportunity to re-evaluate should the need arise. (Oakland, 2004, p. 446). Motwani (2001) lists Senior Management commitment, workforce empowerment and training, performance measuring, process management and customer satisfaction as five aligned factors that contribute to successful implementation. Gaining official accreditation through ISO 9000 is also seen as a method of implementing a successful TQM strategy. (Meegan, 1997; Najmi Kehoe, 2000) But what is ISO 9000? They are a collection of inclusive standards devised by an international group of specialised professionals to guarantee conformity in service and product by providing certification of the processes utilised to produce them. (Oslund Staff Writer, 1993) These standards define what the quality system should be and the levels that an organisation must aspire to in order to assure the client of a satisfying product. Bhuian, 1998) However Hansen et al (2004) warn these standards provide a guide on what to do but not how to do them and conclude by stating that ISO 9000 guides towards assurance which does not automatically translate to improved performance. Gotzamani Tsiotras (2002) apply a more sinister reason for companies striving for accreditation. They argue that accredited companies will declare that their motive in achieving certification is to satisfy their customers and improve quality. However the true reasons are more likely linked to competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ accreditation, supplier demands and customer expectations. While there appears to be much conjecture on how to successfully implement TQM into the workplace, there are common themes. A need for total commitment to TQM from senior management, effective process management, effective communication and employee empowerment and education are all viewed as essential components of a successful TQM strategy. It is somewhat ironic that despite the mountain of literature produced and research available, the preceding factors listed as dependant on success are four of the core values (Kruger, 2001) contained within DemingÃ¢â¬â¢s 14 point approach. Future Research 7. Conclusion 8. Reference list:
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Drood Analysis essays While watching a performance of *BANG* The Mystery *BANG**BANG* of Edwin Drood *BANG* the work of the director was quite clear. I often have trouble trying to determine how much of an influence the director actually has on a production by observing acting choices and design choices. What made the directorial choices so clear was the unison of the production. All of the choices fit so well together that a well-informed audience member easily saw the directors work. One of the more interesting design choices that I noticed early on was the lack of sufficient masking. The black curtains hanging on each end of the stage barely hid the double doors to the well-lit stairwell from the audiences vision. Whenever any actor walked through the double doors, the audience was distracted for an instant and reminded that they were attending a show; a performance. This seemed to be a recurring theme throughout the night and seemed to be large part of the directors concept. The next scenic design choice that tied in well was the fact that the flats were all just a little to small in width. As an audience member, I was allowed to see the edges of scenery and into areas that should have been forbidden. Set pieces that werent in use were sometimes visible through the cracks as well as stagehands, and fire extinguishers; actors getting into place and waiting for their cues were often seen in the wings. These specifics also tied in well with the directors concept and interpretation. They really werent all that distracting and only reinforced the feeling of a live performance at a music hall. Along the same lines was the use of footlights. Of course, the script makes a direct reference to an actor not appearing up here under the footlights but such a line could be considered an expression like in the lime light. The poorly covered footlights often shined in the eyes...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Social, Political and Economic influence on Art - Assignment Example In contrast, Beckett, (1994) argues that the Rococo art derived meaning from opposing the earlier era and its thematic representations. With progressive shift away from wealth and authority. The creation was associated with low touch and minimal design. It portrayed how civilian were reacting to the wealth associated with Kings and royalty instead focusing on normal societal order, creating with it a new and vibrant art style that was less wealthy but representing a frivolous style one that seemed unaware of social predicaments and championing its own gratification. .H. Fragonard, The Swing (figure 1) was one of the most famous paintings of the Rococo era. In this painting a lady is painted on a swing pushed by a bishop so that Ricardo Claude could see the legs. In can be analyzed that the lady has no ability of her mental faculties, essentially what she cares about is her environment. The tones used to represent the extreme sweetness with a light brush stroke. The painting therefore portrays a love affair between the lady on the swing and the man. The painting is conceived with deep symbolism of two small stones indicating a dolphin, and stone Cupid is symbolizing the love affair scene. The husband is placed at the back of the painting to suggest his unawares of her wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s infidelity. The painter uses a typical rococo style by placing the woman on top of this love affair, a characteristic of rococo painting. The color and the tone are expressed by light brush strokes with an overflowing palette color displaying.